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平遥文庙博物馆讲解词
平遥文庙博物馆讲解词
 更新时间:2005/7/20 15:41:15
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平遥文庙博物馆讲解词

尊敬的各位来宾、女士们、先生们:

大家好!很高兴在这里与大家相识。请允许我自我介绍一下,我叫梁华。非常欢迎来到平遥文庙儒学博物馆。进一步了解孔老夫子、了解儒学、了解中国科举,从而了解中国深邃的古代文化,吸取中国历史文化的精髓。同时祝大家过得愉快!

ladies and gentlemen,

glad to meet you here. now please allow me to make a self-introduction. i’m liang hua. welcome to the confucian study museum in pingyao confucian temple to learn about confucius, confucianism as well as the ancient chinese culture and absorb the quintessence of chinese history and culture. have a good time!

文庙一直是供奉和祭祀孔子的地方,是庙与学的有力结合。我们进入棂星门,登上泮桥,跨过大成门,便来到了文庙的主殿大成殿了。平遥文庙据国家文物局编的《中国名胜词典》记载:平遥文庙主建筑大成殿重修于金大定三年(公元1163年),至今已保留了841年。以现存的主建筑大成殿与全国各地文庙相比都早,比北京文庙早248年,比曲阜孔庙早317年,比南京夫子庙早706年,是中国现存最早的文庙,也是中国保存最完整的文系建筑群。平遥文庙现有孔子、“四配”、“十哲”和“七十二贤人”塑像群,为全国目前规格最高、规模最大的孔子及先贤塑像群。

the confucian temple has always been a place to worship and sacrifice to confucius and it’s a combination of temple and school. this is lingxing gate. this is pan bridge. and this is dacheng gate. in front of us is the dacheng hall, the main hall of the confucian temple. according to the dictionary of chinese scenery and historical relics edited by the national bureau of cultural relics, the dacheng hall of pingyao confucian temple was rebuilt in the third year of dading(1163a.d.) in the jin dynasty. it has a history of 841 years. the dacheng hall is older than any other confucian temple all over china. it is 248 years earlier than beijing confucian temple, 317 years earlier than the confucian temple of qufu, shandong province, and 706 years earlier than fuzi temple of nanjing. it is the earliest confucian temples in china and best preserved confucian building complex. in pingyao confucian temple there are the statues of confucius, his four disciples, ten philosophers and 72 sages. the statue group is the highest in standard and the largest in scale throughout china.

请随我到里边看一下,正面这尊塑像就是带帝王之相的孔子坐像,旁边是四配十哲。孔子是中国古代著名的思想家、教育家及儒家学派的创始人。孔子作为儒家学派的创始人,提出了以“仁”为核心的思想学说,儒家所提倡的仁爱精神,不仅是用于缓和阶级矛盾,君臣、君民矛盾的政治原则,而且也是协调家人、族人、国人、以及人际关系的伦理原则。所以说仁的意义远远超出为封建社会服务的范围,具有永久的价值,成为人类世世代代共同赞美的思想与德行。孔子还提出了以德治国的政治学说,学思并重的教育学说,主张有教无类,温故而知新等。

now let’s have a look inside the hall. in the middle is the sitting statue of confucius, who has an appearance of monarch. beside him are the four disciples and ten philosophers. confucius is a great thinker, educator in chinese history and the founder of the school of confucianism. he put forward the ideological system with “ren” as its spirit, which can not only mitigate the contradictions between different classes, monarch and his subjects, but also coordinate the relationship between family members, clansmen and compatriots. so the theory of “ren” is far beyond a means of maintaining feudal ruling. up to now, “ren” has a universal and permanent value and has become the thought and virtue praised by people from generation to generation.

confucius also raised his political theory of “ruling a state with ren and moral integrity ” and many educational theories, such as “paying equal attention to both reading and meditation”, “education should be open to everybody”, “learn new things by reviewing old things” and so on.

我们来到了文庙的第三进院落, 这进院落的主建筑是明伦堂,附属建筑分别是日新斋、时习斋。当时的主要功能是学堂。现在里面布展的是孔子生平展。

now we are in the third yard. its main building is minglun hall and the subsidiary buildings are rixin hall and shixi hall. in the past, the yard was a school. now it’s where confucius’ personal history is on display.

孔子,生于公元前551年,卒于公元前479年,享年73岁。 孔子姓孔名丘,字仲尼,春秋末期鲁国人。相传有弟子三千,贤弟子七十二人,孔子曾带领弟子周游列国14年。孔子还是一位古文献整理家,曾修《诗》、《书》、《礼》、《乐》、序《周易》、作《春秋》。但他的政治理论有明显保守的一面,也有很多积极的成分; 他在中国文化发展史上尤其做过开创性的划时代的`重大贡献。孔子的伦理道德观和教育思想中的有益教言,经他之手保存下来的古代书籍,都是中华民族的重要精神文化遗产。

confucius was born in the state of lu in 551b.c. and died in 479b.c. his given name is qiu and his family name is kong. it is said that he was the teacher of 3000 disciples among whom 72 were sages. for a period of 14 years, confucius traveled from one state to another with his disciples. confucius is also a classical-document compiler, whose works include book of odes, book of history, book of rites, book of music, book of change and book of spring and autumn. although his political ethics is conservative on the whole, there’re many positive elements. he has made founding and epoch-making contributions to the chinese culture. confucius’ moral principles, educational sayings and the ancient books compiled by him are significant cultural heritage of china.

大家请随我这边来,这是中国科举博物馆。科举是中国过去运用最长的一种考试制度,在1905年被废除,有着1300多年的历史。本馆共分九个展室,展出了科举的始建、发展、鼎盛到衰落的过程。对面是敬一亭,是当时人们祭天的地方。穿过敬一亭,眼前的高大建筑是尊经阁,过去称藏经楼,是藏书的地方。请随我上楼,这是魁星神,是主管文运的神。过去人们把自己的前途、命运都寄托在神的身上。所以烧香叩头者非常多。

this way, please. this is the museum of chinese imperial exams. the exam system was used for over 1300 years until it was abolished in 1905. the museum consists of nine rooms showing the process of the creation, development, prosperity and decline of the system. opposite is jingyi pavilion; it’s a place for people to worship the heaven. this tall building is zunjing pagoda, which was called cangjing lou in the past. it’s a place to store books. please follow me upstairs; this is the god of kuixing, a god in charge of literature. in the past, people placed their future and destiny on the god. so many people come here to burn incense, kowtow and pray.

请观赏这张全国唯一仅存的一张状元卷。这张价值连城的状元卷,距今已有400多年的历史了。全卷长3.3米,宽38厘米,共有2460字。您看,它的笔力老道,充满阳刚之气,实为稀世珍宝。这是平遥文庙儒学博物馆的镇院之宝。

now please have a look at the paper of “zhuanyuan”. it has a history of over 400 years. it’s 3.3 metres long and 38centimetres wide. totally there’re 2460 characters. the calligraphy is powerful and vigorous and the paper is one priceless treasure of the museum.

中国科举制,“学而优则仕”和选官中的公平竞争,无疑在中国历史发展中发挥了其积极作用。其影响及朝鲜、日本、越南争相效仿,西方也同样长途跋涉,学习中华文化,受到中国科举“自荐入选、统一标准、则优录取”原则的启示,发展成适合本国国情的新制度。

the chinese imperial exam system, the idea of “learn well and become officials” and the fair competition in choosing officials once played an important role in chinese history. and the system had a great influence on the neighbouring countries such as korea, japan and vietnam as well as western countries. they came all the way to china to learn the chinese culture and the exam system. finally they formed their own.

对此,孙中山先生有着简洁的论述:考试制度在英国实行最早,美国实行考试不过二、三十年。现有各国的考试制度,差不多都是学英国的。穷源溯流,英国的考试制度,原来是从我们中国学过去……所以,中国的考试制度,就是世界上最古最好的制度。

sun yat-sen once drew such a conclusion: britain has a long history of examination. america and other countries learned from britain. however, at the very beginning, britain learned from china. so we can say that the exam system of china is the best one in the world.

接下来请大家随便看一下。注意您的时间。下此见!

next, you may get around freely, but be careful of time.

see you next time.

pingyao confucian temple

 

ladies and gentlemen,

glad to meet you here. now please allow me to make a self-introduction. i’m liang hua. welcome to the confucian study museum in pingyao confucian temple to learn about confucius, confucianism as well as the ancient chinese culture and absorb the quintessence of chinese history and culture. have a good time!

the confucian temple has always been a place to worship and sacrifice to confucius and it’s a combination of temple and school. this is lingxing gate. this is pan bridge. and this is dacheng gate. in front of us is the dacheng hall, the main hall of the confucian temple. according to the dictionary of chinese scenery and historical relics edited by the national bureau of cultural relics, the dacheng hall of pingyao confucian temple was rebuilt in the third year of dading(1163a.d.) in the jin dynasty. it has a history of 841 years. the dacheng hall is older than any other confucian temple all over china. it is 248 years earlier than beijing confucian temple, 317 years earlier than the confucian temple of qufu, shandong province, and 706 years earlier than fuzi temple of nanjing. it is the earliest confucian temples in china and best preserved confucian building complex. in pingyao confucian temple there are the statues of confucius, his four disciples, ten philosophers and 72 sages. the statue group is the highest in standard and the largest in scale throughout china.

now let’s have a look inside the hall. in the middle is the sitting statue of confucius, who has an appearance of monarch. beside him are the four disciples and ten philosophers. confucius is a great thinker, educator in chinese history and the founder of the school of confucianism. he put forward the ideological system with “ren” as its spirit, which can not only mitigate the contradictions between different classes, monarch and his subjects, but also coordinate the relationship between family members, clansmen and compatriots. so the theory of “ren” is far beyond a means of maintaining feudal ruling. up to now, “ren” has a universal and permanent value and has become the thought and virtue praised by people from generation to generation.

confucius also raised his political theory of “ruling a state with ren and moral integrity ” and many educational theories, such as “paying equal attention to both reading and meditation”, “education should be open to everybody”, “learn new things by reviewing old things” and so on.

now we are in the third yard. its main building is minglun hall and the subsidiary buildings are rixin hall and shixi hall. in the past, the yard was a school. now it’s where confucius’ personal history is on display.

confucius was born in the state of lu in 551b.c. and died in 479b.c. his given name is qiu and his family name is kong. it is said that he was the teacher of 3000 disciples among whom 72 were sages. for a period of 14 years, confucius traveled from one state to another with his disciples. confucius is also a classical-document compiler, whose works include book of odes, book of history, book of rites, book of music, book of change and book of spring and autumn. although his political ethics is conservative on the whole, there’re many positive elements. he has made founding and epoch-making contributions to the chinese culture. confucius’ moral principles, educational sayings and the ancient books compiled by him are significant cultural heritage of china.

this way, please. this is the museum of chinese imperial exams. the exam system was used for over 1300 years until it was abolished in 1905. the museum consists of nine rooms showing the process of the creation, development, prosperity and decline of the system. opposite is jingyi pavilion; it’s a place for people to worship the heaven. this tall building is zunjing pagoda, which was called cangjing lou in the past. it’s a place to store books. please follow me upstairs; this is the god of kuixing, a god in charge of literature. in the past, people placed their future and destiny on the god. so many people come here to burn incense, kowtow and pray.

now please have a look at the paper of “zhuanyuan”. it has a history of over 400 years. it’s 3.3 metres long and 38centimetres wide. totally there’re 2460 characters. the calligraphy is powerful and vigorous and the paper is one priceless treasure of the museum.

the chinese imperial exam system, the idea of “learn well and become officials” and the fair competition in choosing officials once played an important role in chinese history. and the system had a great influence on the neighbouring countries such as korea, japan and vietnam as well as western countries. they came all the way to china to learn the chinese culture and the exam system. finally they formed their own.

sun yat-sen once drew such a conclusion: britain has a long history of examination. america and other countries learned from britain. however, at the very beginning, britain learned from china. so we can say that the exam system of china is the best one in the world.

next, you may get around freely, but be careful of time.

see you next time.

 

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